跳到主要內容區塊

參與國際組織

參與國際組織

簡介
資料來源:國際合作及經濟事務司       
相關圖片
世界貿易組織簡介
一、世界貿易組織之成立
世界貿易組織(WTO)係政府間國際組織,旨在促進全球貿易更為自由、公平及可預測性。WTO於1995年依據烏拉圭談判回合談判結果設立,大幅改革了1948 年成立之關稅暨貿易總協定(GATT)世界貿易體制。

二、馬拉喀什設立世界貿易組織協定內容
1994年4月各國部長在摩洛哥馬拉喀什集會,簽署「烏拉圭回合多邊貿易談判蕆事文件」(Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations)及「馬拉喀什設立世界貿易組織協定」(Marrakesh Agreement Establishing The World Trade Organization)。WTO依「馬拉喀什設立世界貿易組織協定」於1995年1月1日正式成立。WTO貿易規則涵蓋貿易範圍包括貨品(「關稅暨貿易總協定」)、服務(「服務貿易總協定」)及智慧財產權(「與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定」),並透過爭端解決及貿易政策檢討機制予以強化。此外,「民用航空器貿易協定」、「政府採購協定」、「資訊科技協定」、「資訊科技協定擴大」及「貿易便捷化協定」等複邊及多邊貿易協定亦屬WTO法律體系。

三、WTO組織及成員
WTO最高決策機構係由會員代表組成之部長會議,通常每兩年開會一次。部長會議休會期間,由總理事會代為執行WTO所有事務。WTO秘書處設在瑞士日內瓦,由秘書長領導,現任秘書長為巴西籍阿茲維多大使(H.E. Roberto Azevêdo),於2013年9月1日就職,並於2017年連任,任期至2021年。
至2018年3月止,WTO共有164個會員。我國於2002年元月以「台灣、澎湖、金門、馬祖個別關稅領域」名義正式加入WTO。我國於瑞士日內瓦派設常駐世界貿易組織代表團,持續積極參與2001年11月展開之「杜哈發展議程」談判,主要聚焦在農業、發展、爭端解決、環境、與貿易有關之智慧財產權、市場進入、規則、服務業及貿易便捷化等議題。


四、WTO之進展
(一) WTO第11屆部長會議(MC11)業於2017年12月10日至13日在阿根廷布宜諾斯艾利斯舉行。本次會議達成多項成果:
1. 達成4項部長決議:包括小型經濟體工作計畫、漁業補貼、電子商務工作計畫及暫停適用非違反「與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定(TRIPS)」之控訴等。
2. 成立南蘇丹入會工作小組。
3. 承諾繼續談判所有待決相關議題,包括農業、非農產品市場進入、服務業、發展、TRIPS、規則及貿易與環境。
4.注及特定會員集團提出之訴求,例如小型脆弱經濟體、WTO協定第12條會員、低度開發國家畢業會員等。
(二) 「貿易便捷化協定」(Trade Facilitation Agreement, TFA)於2017年2月22日生效,此係WTO成立22年以來,第一個生效的新多邊協定。
 
 
1. Establishment
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that promotes trade liberalization, fair competition, and predictability. The WTO’s establishment in 1995 as a result of the Uruguay Round of negotiations was the biggest reform of the world trading system since the advent of the 1948 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

2. The Marrakesh Agreement
In April 1994, the trade ministers of founding members met in Marrakesh, Morocco, to sign the Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, leading to the establishment of the WTO on January 1, 1995. The WTO helps regulate such areas as trade in goods (under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), trade in services (under the General Agreement on Trade in Services), and intellectual property rights (under the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights). The Dispute Settlement Body and the Trade Policy Review Mechanism help strengthen the WTO. Various plurilateral and multilateral agreements, including the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft, the Government Procurement Agreement, the Information Technology Agreement and the expansion thereof, and the Trade Facilitation Agreement also form part of the WTO system.

3. Organizational structure and members
The Ministerial Conference is the highest level decision-making body of the WTO, convening a plenary meeting biennially. When the Ministerial Conference is not in session, the General Council is responsible for carrying out the functions of the WTO. Located in Geneva, Switzerland, the WTO Secretariat is currently headed by Director-General Roberto Azevêdo of Brazil, who was inaugurated on September1, 2013, and was relected on 2017 till 2021.

As of March 2018, the WTO has 164 members. The Republic of China (Taiwan) acceded to the WTO in January 2002 under the name Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu. Through our permanent mission to the WTO, we have actively participated in the Doha Development Agenda round of negotiations launched in November 2001, which focuses on such issues as agriculture, development, dispute settlement, environmental protection, intellectual property rights, market access, rules, services, and trade facilitation.

4. WTO progress
(1) The 11th WTO Ministerial Conference was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, December 10-13, 2017. It realized several achievements, including the following:
A. Ministerial Decisions: including Small Economies, Fisheries Subsidies, E-commerce and non-violation complaints under Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs).
B. The creation of the working party on accession for South Sudan.
C. Commitment to continuing to move forward on the negotiations related to all remaining relevant issues, including to advance work on the three pillars of agriculture (domestic support, market access and export competition) as well as non-agricultural market access, services, development, TRIPS, rules, and trade and environment.
D. Take note of the requests from small, vulnerable economies, Article XII Members, graduated least-developed countries, etc.
(2) The Trade Facilitation Agreement entered into force on February 22, 2017, making it the first multilateral instrument concluded since the WTO’s establishment 22 years ago.

 

:::