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參與國際組織

參與國際組織

簡介
資料來源:國際合作及經濟事務司       
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世界貿易組織簡介
一、世界貿易組織之成立
世界貿易組織(WTO)係政府間國際組織,旨在促進全球貿易更為自由、公平及可預測性。WTO於1995年依據烏拉圭談判回合談判結果設立,大幅改革了1948 年成立之關稅暨貿易總協定(GATT)世界貿易體制。

二、馬拉喀什設立世界貿易組織協定內容
1994年4月各國部長在摩洛哥馬拉喀什集會,簽署「烏拉圭回合多邊貿易談判蕆事文件」(Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations)及「馬拉喀什設立世界貿易組織協定」(Marrakesh Agreement Establishing The World Trade Organization)。WTO依「馬拉喀什設立世界貿易組織協定」於1995年1月1日正式成立。WTO貿易規則涵蓋貿易範圍包括貨品(「關稅暨貿易總協定」)、服務(「服務貿易總協定」)及智慧財產權(「與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定」),並透過爭端解決及貿易政策檢討機制予以強化。此外,「民用航空器貿易協定」、「政府採購協定」、「資訊科技協定」、「資訊科技協定擴大」及「貿易便捷化協定」等複邊及多邊貿易協定亦屬WTO法律體系。

三、WTO組織及成員
WTO最高決策機構係由會員代表組成之部長會議,通常每兩年開會一次。部長會議休會期間,由總理事會代為執行WTO所有事務。WTO秘書處設在瑞士日內瓦,由秘書長領導,WTO前任秘書長Roberto Azevedo於2020年8月31日提前離任,WTO刻正辦理新任秘書長選任事宜。
至2020年,WTO共有164個會員。我國於2002年元月以「台灣、澎湖、金門、馬祖個別關稅領域」名義正式加入WTO。我國於瑞士日內瓦派設常駐世界貿易組織代表團,持續積極參與漁業補貼、電子商務、農業、發展、爭端解決、環境、與貿易有關之智慧財產權、市場進入、規則、服務業及貿易便捷化等議題之談判,並運用WTO爭端解決機制捍衛我產業利益。


四、WTO之進展
(一) WTO第11屆部長會議(MC11)業於2017年12月10日至13日在阿根廷布宜諾斯艾利斯舉行。本次會議達成多項成果:
1. 達成4項部長決議:包括小型經濟體工作計畫、漁業補貼、電子商務工作計畫及暫停適用非違反「與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定(TRIPS)」之控訴等。
2. 成立南蘇丹入會工作小組。
3. 承諾繼續談判所有待決相關議題,包括農業、非農產品市場進入、服務業、發展、TRIPS、規則及貿易與環境。
4.注及特定會員集團提出之訴求,例如小型脆弱經濟體、WTO協定第12條會員、低度開發國家畢業會員等。
(二) 「貿易便捷化協定」(Trade Facilitation Agreement, TFA)於2017年2月22日生效,此係WTO成立22年以來,第一個生效的新多邊協定。
(三) WTO第12屆部長會議(MC12)暫訂於2021年6月在哈薩克努爾蘇丹舉行,WTO將視武漢肺炎疫情發展另召開會議討論確切的舉行日期。
 
 
1. Establishment
The World Trade Organization is an intergovernmental organization that seeks to promote greater liberalization, fairness, and predictability in global trade. The WTO’s establishment in 1995, resulting from the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, was the biggest reform of the world trading system since the advent of the 1948 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

2. Marrakesh Agreement
In April 1994, the trade ministers of founding members met in Marrakesh, Morocco, to sign the Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, leading to the WTO’s official founding on January 1, 1995. The WTO helps regulate areas such as trade in goods (under GATT), trade in services (under the General Agreement on Trade in Services), and intellectual property rights (under the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, or TRIPS). The Dispute Settlement Body and the Trade Policy Review Mechanism further strengthen the WTO’s operations. Numerous plurilateral and multilateral agreements including the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft, the Government Procurement Agreement, the Information Technology Agreement and the expansion thereof, and the Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) also form part of the WTO system.

3. Organizational structure and members
The Ministerial Conference is the highest-level decision-making body of the WTO, convening a plenary meeting biennially. When the Ministerial Conference is not in session, the General Council is responsible for carrying out the functions of the WTO. The WTO, whose Secretariat is located in Geneva, Switzerland, is headed by a Director-General. Former Director-General Roberto Azevêdo, a Brazilian, stepped down one year before the expiry of his mandate, leaving office on August 31, 2020. The WTO is currently carrying out the selection process for a new Director-General.

As of April 2020, the WTO has 164 members. The Republic of China (Taiwan) acceded to the WTO in January 2002 under the name Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu. Through its Permanent Mission to the WTO, Taiwan has actively participated in negotiations on topics such as fisheries subsidies, e-commerce, agriculture, development, dispute settlement, environmental protection, trade-related intellectual property rights, market access, rules, services, and trade facilitation. Taiwan has used the dispute settlement mechanism to protect its industries.

4. Key developments in recent years
4.1. The 11th WTO Ministerial Conference was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from December 10 to 13, 2017. It produced several significant outcomes, including the following:
4.1.1. Ministerial Decisions were made on small economies, fisheries subsidies, e-commerce, and nonviolation complaints under TRIPS.
4.1.2. A working group was set up to handle the accession of South Sudan.
4.1.3. A commitment was made to continuing negotiations on other key issues, including the three pillars of agriculture (domestic support, market access, export competition), nonagricultural market access, services, development, TRIPS, rules, and trade and environment.
4.1.4. Requests were noted from small and vulnerable economies, Article XII members, and countries that have graduated from least-developed country status.
4.2. The TFA entered into force on February 22, 2017, marking the first multilateral instrument concluded since the WTO’s founding 22 years earlier.
4.3. The 12th WTO Ministerial Conference has been tentatively slated for June 2021 in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan. However, the WTO will convene a special conference to discuss and confirm this date in light of the development of the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

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